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  • Farhad S

Comprehensive guide to Gingivitis

Context of the article:

  • Overview

  • Causes

  • Signs and symptoms

  • Diagnosis

  • Treatment

  • Prevention

  • Complications

  • Summary

Gingivitis is an infection of the gingiva (gums). Plaque accumulation on the teeth is the most common cause.

Gingivitis is a common condition that most adults will experience at some point. It's a type of gum disease that usually has only minor symptoms. If the fundamental cause is not addressed, it might deteriorate into a more severe condition.

The following are some key points to remember about gingivitis:

  • Gingivitis is caused by bacterial accumulation around the teeth, the most prevalent cause of the disease.

  • Gingivitis is characterized by swollen, red gums that bleed when a person flosses or brushes their teeth.

  • Gingivitis is generally treated with appropriate dental hygiene, including regular brushing and flossing. An antibacterial mouthwash may also be beneficial.

The causes, types and symptoms of gingivitis are discussed in this article. It also describes how gingivitis may be treated and prevented.


Gingivitis is a periodontal disease often without any pain or symptom.

Gingivitis is divided into two categories.

Inflammation, pain, and redness are all symptoms of dental plaque-induced gingivitis, which arises when plaque irritates a person's gums.

Non-plaque-induced gingival lesions, on the other hand, can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection. This gingivitis can also be caused by allergic reactions, conditions, and reactions to foreign bodies, such as dentures.

If gingivitis is not treated correctly, both types of gingivitis can proceed to periodontitis. Periodontitis is a more severe illness that can lead to tooth loss and other issues.


The collection of bacterial plaque around and between the teeth is the most prevalent cause of gingivitis. Dental plaque is just a biofilm that forms on the teeth naturally. It happens when bacteria cling to a tooth's smooth surface.

Plaque can develop into calculus(tartar) around the gums at the base of the teeth. The colour is yellow-white. Plaque and tartar build-up can activate immune responses that cause gingival or gum tissue damage. It may eventually lead to more severe issues, such as tooth loss.

Other risk factors and causes

Various underlying disorders and external causes can exacerbate plaque build-up and the risk of gum inflammation.

Such as:

  • Hormonal changes

  • Some diseases

  • Drugs

  • Smoking

  • Age

  • Family history

Symptoms and signs

The following are some of the indications and symptoms of gingivitis:

  • Red and inflamed gum

  • soft gums

  • bleeding gums while brushing or flossing

  • halitosis, or bad breath

  • receding gums

However, there may be no discomfort or apparent symptoms in moderate cases of gingivitis.


A dentist or oral hygienist will examine symptoms such as plaque and tartar in the oral cavity.

They may also prescribe tests to look for symptoms. This can be done with periodontal probing, which involves measuring pocket depths around a tooth with a tool or an X-ray.

Treatment of Gingivitis

Gingivitis can be treated by following a good oral hygiene routine if diagnosed early and treated promptly and appropriately.

If symptoms persist or the condition harms a person's quality of life, they should seek expert care.

Treatment of gingivitis often involves care by a dental professional and follow-up procedures carried out by the patient at home.

Dental treatment by a qualified dentist

A dental expert may do scaling at first. This is so that they can get rid of any excess plaque or tartar. This can be aggravating, particularly if the tartar is considerable or the gums are sensitive.

The dental expert will teach the importance of oral hygiene and how to brush and floss efficiently after cleaning a person's teeth. They may suggest additional check-ups to check on a person's plaque and tartar. This will allow the dentist to detect and treat any recurrences rapidly.

Some dental issues, such as crooked teeth, poorly fitting crowns, or bridges, might make it more challenging to eliminate plaque and tartar adequately. They might also cause gum irritation.


Gingivitis can be prevented by practising good dental hygiene regularly. This includes the following:

  • Brushing teeth at least twice a day

  • Flossing at least once a day

  • Visit your dentist/hygienist for professional cleaning 3-4 times per year

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